Garvey Schubert Barer was a principal sponsor of the 7th International Planning, Law, and Property Rights 2013 conference, held February 13 - 15 in Portland, Oregon. Over 120 national and international planning professionals, academics, and land use attorneys descended upon the Rose City to discuss current planning issues, strategies and successes throughout the globe.
The conference finished with a full day dedicated to Oregon Land Use and the celebration of the 40 year anniversary of Senate Bill 100, the state bill that established Oregon’s unique land use system. Garvey Schubert’s Ed Sullivan, co-chair of the event, shared the history of the state’s land use system – highlighting successes and identifying where more work must be done. Many others deeply involved in the creation of Oregon’s system spoke about the current and future challenges that face Oregon and the region.
We are pleased to share the links to two of the key note speeches delivered at the conference:
The conference commenced with a stirring keynote address by Dwight Merriam, entitled “Getting Past ’Yes or No‘ – Linking Police Power Decision-Making with Just Compensation” watch his speech here.
Professor Lee Fennell, University of Chicago Law School gave the closing keynote speech entitled, “Optional Planning”, watch her speech here.
In 2010, the 9th Circuit (the federal appellate court that includes most of the Western United States) ruled in a case involving the City of West Linn that conditions to development approval requiring off-site improvements, such as the installation of a pipeline or road improvement, were not subject to the same “rough proportionality” obligations imposed for when the government requires acquisition of land. West Linn Corporate Park, LLC v. City of West Linn. The Oregon Supreme Court responding to a series of questions asked by the 9th Circuit as part of its deliberations concluded that where a regulation requires that the owner pay a sum of money, “the regulation is not tantamount to acquisition.” The US Supreme Court declined further review and the West Linn case settled this matter until now.
This past month, however, the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Koontz v. St. Johns River Management District, requiring that court to grapple with the right of government to impose off-site conditions in return for permit approval. Coy Koontz Sr. wanted to develop 3.7 acres of wetlands and protected uplands located in a habitat protection zone controlled by the local St. Johns River Water Management District in Florida. Koontz applied for a permit offering to place his remaining 11 acres of his property into a conservation easement. The District determined that additional mitigation to offset the loss of wetlands was required in addition to dedicating the 11 acres. The District asserted Koontz would likely be required to pay for improvements for these off-site wetlands owned by the District but located elsewhere and said it was open to other alternatives. Koontz refused the District’s specific proposal and his permit was denied.
Koontz filed suit in Florida state court arguing that there was no “essential nexus” or “rough proportionality” between the government request for off-site improvements and the impacts from the proposed development. The state trial court ruled in favor of Koontz finding a taking but the Florida Supreme Court reversed finding that there was no “dedication of real property” and therefore, no taking occurred. In October, 2012, the US Supreme Court accepted the case.
As with the plaintiff in the West Linn case, Koontz argued that the off-site mitigation measures suggested by the district in order to allow the development on his property to go forward were not “roughly proportional” to the impacts from this development and further, these tests apply to conditions suggested by the government in a permit negotiation process but never actually imposed. The District and a number of amici argued that Koontz’s claim was inconsistent with the text and history of the Takings Clause, as well as the Court’s takings jurisprudence, and that no taking could have occurred because no property was actually taken. The brief filed by the amicus American Planning Association argued that “a ruling for Koontz would effectively constitutionalize all run-of-the- mill land use negotiations and risk grinding both the land use process and the judicial system itself to a halt.”
The City of Harrisburg placed a municipal water well on undeveloped property owned by the Defendant property owner, Ms. Leigh. Shortly thereafter, the City discovered that they placed the well on her property but they did nothing. Several years later Ms. Leigh decided to sell the property and her broker discovered the well and approached the City with the situation. The City responded to her discovery of the well by suing her for adverse possession of her property, instead of offering to pay her fair market value of her property. The City lost and she won an ejectment action – which resulted in the trial Court opinion that the City was not entitled to legal possession or any interest in the property and ordering the City to vacate the property and decommission the well by September 1.
Months later, on a Friday, August 28, the City offered to purchase her property for $7,425. When she rejected their offer, they filed an emergency condemnation proceeding the following Tuesday, September 2. The dates here are important.
Ms. Leigh’s position at trial was that, as a matter of law, as of September 2, (one day after the well was to have been decommissioned) Ms. Leigh owned the well because the trial court’s judgment specifically held that the City had no legal right to Ms. Leigh’s property and were required to decommission the well by September 1st , which had not occurred. The trial court rejected Ms. Leigh’s legal argument and Ms. Leigh received only compensation for the land and not for the well.
Ms. Leigh appealed to the Oregon Court of Appeals, which agreed that the ejectment judgment conclusively established that Ms. Leigh was the owner of the property, including its improvements. Accordingly, she was entitled to compensation for the value of the property, as improved. A public body that takes private property for public use must pay the property owner “just compensation”. OR Const, Art I § 18. The Court of Appeals held that the prior judgment conclusively held that the City was “wrongfully withholding possession of the Property”, and therefore, the value of the property was measured as of September 2, 2008 – the date the condemnation action was commenced and the property included compensation for the well because the well had not been decommissioned by September 1. The case was remanded back to the trial court for entry of judgment for Ms. Leigh.
(Property owner was represented by Garvey Schubert Barer.)
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